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Exosomes derived from reparative M2-like macrophages stop bone loss in murine periodontitis fashions through IL-10 mRNA | Journal of Nanobiotechnology


Cell isolation and tradition

BMSCs and BMDM have been harvested from lengthy bones of sacrificed C57BL/6 (6–8 weeks of age) mice. After eradicating each ends of the tibiae and femur bone, the medullary cavity was rinsed with assistance from syringe beneath sterile situations. Cells have been harvested and resuspended into the tradition flask. The tradition medium consisted of α-modified Eagle’s medium-α (α-MEM, Gibco, USA), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Gibco, USA) and 1% Penicillin–streptomycin (100 IU/mL penicillin and 100 µg/mL streptomycin) (Life Applied sciences) in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. The tradition medium was changed each 48 h and the cells have been passaged at 80–90% confluency. The BMSCs of third era have been ready for follow-up experiments. For BMDM tradition, bone marrow cells have been gathered and plated at 10-cm dish with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM, Gibco, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% Penicillin–streptomycin and 25 ng/ml M-CSF (Biolegend, USA). Cells have been cultured for six d with the medium modified each 48 h. Then, 20 ng/ml IL-4 (Biolegend, USA) was administered as reparative M2-like macrophages stimulators for twenty-four h and utilized in subsequent experiments.

Isolation of exosomes

After 24 h incubation with 20 ng/ml IL-4, induced reparative M2-like macrophages have been washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 3 instances after which have been cultured in exosome-free medium. After 48 h culturing, useless cells and particles from mobile supernatants have been discarded by centrifuging at 3000×g for 15 min, adopted by filtration with a 0.45 μm filter. The supernatants have been harvested and underwent ultracentrifugation for 90 min at 120,000g at 4 °C. The precipitate was resuspended by PBS and spun for an extra 90 min at 120,000g. The ultimate precipitate (exosomes) was dissolved in 500 μL of 1 × PBS and saved at − 80 °C.

Characterization of exosomes

Transmission electron microscopy (JEM-2000EX TEM, Japan) was used to evaluate the morphology of purified reparative M2-like macrophages derived exosomes. Ample exosomes resolution was positioned onto 200 mesh copper grids for five min at 37 °C after which 2% phosphotungstic acid was used to stain the copper grids. When the grids are dry, the exosomes have been considered and photographed beneath TEM. Collected M2-Exos have been diluted to 500 ng/ml and to keep away from inter-particle interplay. The scale distribution of extracted exosomes was investigated by Nanoplus (Beckman Coulter, USA).

Internalization of DiI-labeled exosomes in vitro

To find out whether or not M2-Exos might be uptake by BMSCs and BMDM, the exosomes have been labeled by 1 μM DiI lipophilic dye (Invitrogen, USA). After incubated with DiI for 30 min, exosomes have been collected through centrifugation at 120,000g for 90 min, adopted by including to the tradition medium of BMSCs and BMDM for six h, respectively. Then phalloidin was added to stain F-actin in BMSCs and BMDM staining was carried out utilizing anti-F4/80. Afterward, the nuclei of handled cells have been incubated with Hoechst (Invitrogen, USA) for 10 min at room temperature. The pictures have been considered through a fluorescence microscope (Olympus, Japan).

Alizarin crimson staining

BMSCs have been plated onto 12-well plates. When reaching 80–90% confluence, the osteogenic induction medium containing 10 mM b-glycerophosphate, 100 nM dexamethasone and 50 mM ascorbic acid was used to advertise osteogenesis. The osteogenic induction medium was modified each 3 d. After 21 d induction, BMSCs have been washed by PBS for twice. With 4% paraformaldehyde was then added to repair the cells for 15 min at room temperature. Alizarin Pink S staining was carried out by staining the cells with Alizarin Pink S resolution (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) for 20 min. Subsequently, the distilled water was used to rinse twice and the crimson mineralized nodules have been noticed and captured utilizing an inverted microscope (Olympus, Japan). Absorbance was then measured at 562 nm.

ALP staining and exercise assay

14 d after osteogenic induction of BMSCs, a BCIP/NBT alkaline phosphatase shade improvement package (Beyotime, China) was utilized in accordance with the producer’s directions. Briefly, cells have been washed by PBS for twice. The 4% paraformaldehyde was used to repair the cells for 15 min after which rinsed with distilled water for twice. After discarding the distilled water, BCIP/NBT substrate was incubated with cells for 40 min beneath a darkish situation. The pictures have been pictured and noticed utilizing an inverted microscope. Experiments have been repeated in triplicate. An ALP assay package (Beyotime, China) was used for the ALP exercise assay. Briefly, RIPA lysis buffer containing phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) was utilized to lyse BMSCs. Lysates have been harvested from supernatants by centrifuging at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. The samples have been incubated with response buffer for 15 min at 37 °C. After terminating the response, absorbance was detected at 520 nm and the focus of protein was quantified through the BCA package (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). Complete protein focus was used for normalization of ALP exercise.

Osteoclast differentiation and TRAP staining

BMDM have been obtained from lengthy bones of sacrificed C57BL/6 (6–8 weeks of age) mice. Cells have been responded with the α-MEM containing 25 ng/ml M-CSF, 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% Penicillin–streptomycin for twenty-four h. Nonadherent cells in supernatants have been harvested and cultured on 6-well plates with the medium supplemented with 50 ng/ml RANKL (R&D Techniques, USA) and 25 ng/ml M-CSF (ρ = 2.0 × 105 cells/cm2). The medium was modified each 2 d till mature osteoclasts had fashioned. TRAP staining package (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was utilized to stain the TRAP of osteoclasts through the next the producers’ directions. TRAP-positive cells with three or extra nuclei have been thought to be mature osteoclasts. The scale and variety of mature osteoclasts have been noticed and scored by an inverted microscope.

cDNA synthesis and quantitative PCR evaluation

RT-qPCR was used to quantify the gene expression ranges. RNA was harvested by Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, USA) and transformed into cDNA utilizing PrimeScript RT Reagent package (Takara, Janpan). After which RT-qPCR was carried out utilizing SYBR inexperienced (Takara, Janpan) by Bio-Rad CFX96 Actual-Time PCR Detection System (Roche, Germany) with particular primers. β-actin was chosen as loading management and the two−ΔΔCt technique was carried out to calculate relative gene expression. The experiment was repeated thrice. Primer sequences used are listed in Further file 1: Desk S1.

Western blot

The protein of cells or exosomes was remoted by RIPA lysis buffer, adopted by centrifuging at 12,000 rpm for 10 min. After quantifying the focus of protein through BCA package, 40 μg proteins have been separated on 10% SDS PAGE. After that, proteins have been transferred onto a 0.5 μm pore dimension nitrocellulose membrane at 180 mA. Subsequently, the membranes have been blocked by 5% skim milk in tris-buffered saline with Tween-20 (TBST) for 1 h after which incubated with main antibodies for probing goal protein at 4 ℃ in a single day. The next day, the membranes have been incubated with corresponding with secondary antibodies at room temperature for 1 h. The blots have been detected by Odyssey Infrared Imager system (LI‐COR Bioscience, USA) in keeping with the directions. Antibodies masking GM130 (CST, USA), CD9 (Abcam, USA), TSG101 (Abcam, USA), and GAPDH (CST, USA) have been ready by TBST (1:1000). Secondary antibodies have been ready by TBST (1:2000).

ELISA

The BMSCs or BMDM have been co-cultured with M2-Exos for twenty-four h after which the medium was discarded and cells have been rinsed with PBS for twice. Subsequently, contemporary medium was added for an extra 24 h. Subsequent, medium was harvested and centrifuged to take away the precipitate at 300 g for 10 min. ELISA kits (Lianke, China) have been used to detect the expression of IL-10 from BMSCs or BMDM.

Move cytometric evaluation

IL-10R on membranes was evaluated by Move cytometry evaluation. BMSCs or BMDM have been collected and incubated with 1 μl of anti-IL-10R antibody (Biolegend, USA) in the dead of night for 30 min. Wash the samples sequentially with 1 ml wash resolution for 3 instances. The precipitate was obtained through centrifugation at 800 rpm and resuspended in 1 × PBS. Subsequent, FITC-labeled secondary antibodies (Yeasen, China) was added for 30 min and the precipitate was collected through centrifugation at 800 rpm. Subsequent, precipitate was resuspended in 300 µL PBS. Measurements have been carried out with Novocyte circulation cytometer (ACEA) and knowledge have been analyzed with NovoExpress software program.

Murine periodontal illness mannequin

All C57BL/6 (6–8 weeks of age) mice have been obtained from the animal heart of the Fourth Navy Medical College and carried out beneath protocols authorized by the Animal Care and Use Committee. The mice underwent anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection. A 5–0 silk ligature was immersed in P. gingivalis bacterial resolution (1 × 109/CFU) for 1 h after which mounted to the maxillary left second molar of mice for 10 d all through the period of experiment to induce periodontitis. For exosomes therapy, 30 μl PBS or M2-Exos was injected domestically when the ligature was eliminated. For antagomir therapy, the combination of M2-Exos with anti-IL-10R antibody was injected domestically after eradicating ligature.

Micro-CT scanning and reconstruction

After intraperitoneal injection with overdose of pentobarbital sodium, maxillary alveolar bones have been harvested from euthanized mice. The collected alveolar bones have been mounted into 4% PFA earlier than transferred into 75% ethanol. The additional imaging examination was carried out through the high-resolution micro-CT scanner (Yxlon, Germany). Three-dimensional reconstruction of every scan was executed and reoriented to the identical place for bone loss evaluation with anatomic landmarks. The space of six predetermined websites on each the buccal and palatal sides between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest (CEJ-ABC distance) was measured as beforehand described [40].

Histology and immunostaining evaluation

Maxillae samples harvested from mice have been mounted into 4% PFA for histological evaluation. After that, the samples have been demineralized and embedded in paraffin. Afterward, the wax blocks have been reduce into 5-μm-thick sagittal sections which have been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). An inverted microscope was used to captured histological photographs. For immunostaining evaluation, the sections have been blocked with 0.5% FBS at room temperature for 1 h. The sections have been incubated with main antibody of TRAP (Sevicepio, China) at 4 °C for 12 h, adopted by secondary antibody at 37 °C for 1 h. Subsequent, DAPI was used to satin sections at 37 °C for 10 min. Immunofluorescence sign was noticed and captured by confocal microscope (Zeiss, Germany).

Statistical evaluation

The outcomes have been reported as imply ± SEM for a minimum of three impartial experiments. Information analyses on this experiment have been carried out by Scholar’s t-test between 2 teams, whereas one-way ANOVAs was used to look at variations amongst 3 teams by SPSS model 20.0 software program. P < 0.05 was thought to be significance threshold (*, p < 0.05. **, p < 0.01. ***, p < 0.001).

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